Virtual Museum ID: 19-QM03

Specimen Summary

Kyanite is a blue aluminosilicate mineral that forms distinctive elongate crystals. It found in metamorphic rocks, pegmatite intrusions, quartz veins, and rarely in sedimentary rocks. It forms under high pressure metamorphic conditions. In fact, geologists use it as an indicator of the metamorphic conditions that affected a rock, since it only forms under particular pressure and temperature conditions. Kyanite has the unusual property of anisotropic hardness. That means that its hardness is different in one orientation to another; its hardness along its long axis is different to its hardness across it. Kyanite is used mainly in ceramics and electronics.

Specimen Data


The information listed below relates to the current holding location or collection that the sample is from, and whether the item is viewable at that location or is part of a private collection. Coordinates are given as guides, and we remind you that collecting specimens from these locations is not allowed. Caution is advised visiting such sites and Below BC assumes no responsibility for any injuries or trespassing charges that may occur as a result of the viewer entering these sites.

Collection Details

Original Collection:

Quesnel & District Museum (QM)

Sub Collection:


Collection ID:


Virtual Museum ID:



Date Added to VM:


Location Information

Sample Origin:

Canoe River, B.C.

Specific Site:

Valemount Area

UTM Easting:


UTM Northing:



11 (NAD 83)

Coordinate Accuracy:


Specimen Details

VM Category:


Primary Features:


Primary Mineral Formula:


Primary Category:


Secondary Features:


Advanced Geological Information


The following section provides geological data relating to the specimen or the site it was collected from, when available. Information has been obtained from various sources including private and government datasets but may not be up to date. Any geological time periods or ages listed often relate to the primary geology of the area, and may not be the actual date of an event such as mineral formation.

Geological Formation:

Hadrynian Lower Kaza Group

Geological Period:


Stratigraphic Age:

1433 Million Years Ago

Geological Belt:


Geological Terrane:

Kootenay, Ancestral North America

Minfile ID:

083D 012

Site Details:

The Canoe North Mica property is situated on the north side of the Canoe River about 5 kilometres southwest of Cedarside.

The showing is underlain by folded Hadrynian Lower Kaza Group kyanite-staurolite-garnet-biotite and/or muscovite-quartz-feldspar pelitic schist. Other lithologies of the lower Kaza Group include psammite, amphibolite, marble, calc-silicate, conglomerate, coarse grained grit and diamictite. The foliation of layers within the showing strike 240 degrees and dip 10 degrees northwest. A more detailed description of the regional structure and metamorphism is given in the Canoe South Mica (083D 017) and Albreda (083D 018) occurrences.

In the quarry, schist consists predominantly of muscovite and quartz with lesser garnet, biotite and feldspar, in layers striking 240 degrees and dipping 10 degrees to the northwest. A sample from the main quarry was sent to the Department of Mines, Ottawa where garnet, rutile and ilmenite were identified by x-ray diffraction. The main quarry is about 61 metres in diameter and 3.0 to 4.5 metres deep.

In 1961, a drill program, consisting of 18 short holes covering an area of 152 square metres, indicated approximately 200,000 tonnes of reserves grading 85 to 90 per cent mica to depth of 3.65 metres (Northern Miner March 15, 1962). Some holes were drilled to a depth of 12 metres without reaching the lower limit of the mica-rich layer. A processing plant was built in Cedarside in 1960 and 100 tonnes of mica product was produced for market by Georgia Mineral Industries Ltd. (Minister of Mines Annual Report 1960). During 1961, a further 125 tonnes of mica were produced (Minister of Mines Annual Report 1961). In 1962 remodelling of the plant was completed and testing begun. Several shipments of mica were made to dry-wall joint cement consumers (Minister of Mines Annual Report 1962).

Mits Development Company Ltd. drilled a 91.5 metre hole on the Canoe 1 claim in 1978. In 1979, a further 16 holes were drilled totalling 641.3 metres. Forty five samples were submitted for froth flotation for mica recovery. Results ranged from 51.6 to 68.5 per cent muscovite (Assessment Report 7687).

Outland Resources Corp. outlined 2,290,000 tonnes of reserves after acquiring the property in 1980. The grade was 60.5 per cent muscovite. Another 1,000,000 tonnes of reserves was fairly assured (Canadian Mining Journal, May 1982).

Property work in 1986 and 1987 included a pre-feasibility study. Conclusions of the study were that present markets were inadequate to justify production at that time.

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