Virtual Museum ID: 19-NCM12

Specimen Summary

Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed of skeletal fragments of organisms found in marine areas such as corals and molluscs. It consists primarily of calcite, which reacts to hydrochloric acid. Limestone can be found in warm and shallow marine waters. There are varieties of limestone such as chalk, coquina, tufa and more.

Specimen Data


The information listed below relates to the current holding location or collection that the sample is from, and whether the item is viewable at that location or is part of a private collection. Coordinates are given as guides, and we remind you that collecting specimens from these locations is not allowed. Caution is advised visiting such sites and Below BC assumes no responsibility for any injuries or trespassing charges that may occur as a result of the viewer entering these sites.

Collection Details

Original Collection:

Chamber of Mines of Eastern BC (NCM)

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Date Added to VM:


Location Information

Sample Origin:

Castlegar, B.C.

Specific Site:


UTM Easting:


UTM Northing:



11 (NAD 83)

Coordinate Accuracy:

Specimen Details

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Primary Features:


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Advanced Geological Information


The following section provides geological data relating to the specimen or the site it was collected from, when available. Information has been obtained from various sources including private and government datasets but may not be up to date. Any geological time periods or ages listed often relate to the primary geology of the area, and may not be the actual date of an event such as mineral formation.

Geological Formation:

Milford Group

Geological Period:

Mississippian to Lower Permian

Stratigraphic Age:

358.9 to 290 Million Years Ago

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Site Details:

This Kootenay Florence property lies along the west side of Kootenay Lake between Cedar Creek and the South Fork of Woodbury Creek. The mining operations have been confined largely to the Florence Fraction, Laura M., Twin, Hope Fraction and Illinois claims.

Some of these claims were staked as early as 1899 but apparently little development was done until 1911. The Florence Mining Co. of Spokane took over the property in 1912 and operated it more or less continuously until 1923. Five levels were established, the lowest one (No. 5) was the main haulage level. Considerable stoping was done between No. 5 and No. 4 levels and above No. 2 level. Leasers operated the mine in 1923-24.

In 1926 the Kootenay-Florence Mining Co. Ltd. acquired 18 claims in the area, including those listed above. A new low level tunnel (No. 9 level) was driven for 2433 metres to explore the downward continuation of the orebodies found in the old workings. A raise was driven from No. 9 to No. 5 level, partly for ventilation purposes. Intermediate levels were established from this raise. Most of the stoping was done between No. 9 and No. 8 levels.

The mine closed down late in 1929 and was not opened again until 1942 when it was taken over by the Wartime Metals Corporation. They continued operations until May 1944 when operations ceased. Ainsmore Consolidated Mines Ltd. owned and operated the mine from 1945 through 1950.

Western Mines Ltd. of Vancouver obtained the property in 1951. The Consolidated Mining and Smelting Co. Ltd. obtained an option on the property and carried out a geological and geophysical survey of the surface. A diamond drilling program, totalling 7010 metres, was carried out to investigate a gentle arc in the limestone beds. Very little ore was found so the option was dropped. Leasers carried out small scale mining operations on the Lakeshore and Florence claims in 1958-1960.

The Florence occurrence is hosted by limestones, schist and greenstones of the upper part of the Mississippian to Lower Permian Milford Group. A series of parallel fissures striking east-west and dipping 40 degrees south, cut the rocks. Two types of ore deposits occur. Replacements in limestone usually occur at the contact of the limestone with the overlying schist. fissure vein ore occurs at the contact of the quartz and the schist and in sheared greenstone. The ore is coarsely crystalline galena and sphalerite with some pyrite and chalcopyrite. The gangue is altered limestone, calcite, quartz and fluorite.

The ore consists of pods and lenses, up to 5 metres thickless evenly distributed in the veins in a gangue of quartz and calcite. Where the veins intersect limestone beds, replacement occurs along the walls. Replacement is reported to be more extensive in the upper parts of the deposit. Vein and replacement bodies are surrounded by a halo of silicified and chloritized host rocks.

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