Quartz chalcopyrite pyrite and galena

Virtual Museum ID: 19-MEM09

Specimen Summary

Quartz is the second most abundant mineral on Earth, present in many different types of rocks. Although usually clear or milky white in colour, quartz is found in a variety of colours due to impurities in the crystal structure. Pure quartz consists of silicon and oxygen only, but atoms of other elements often make their way into the quartz crystal structure, colouring the crystals. Some varieties of quartz, like purple amethyst and yellow citrine, are considered to be semi-precious gemstones and have been used since ancient times to make jewellery and decorative objects. Well-formed (euhedral) crystals of quartz have a hexagonal cross section and are highly collectible.

Chalcopyrite is the most common ore mineral for copper and is a sulphide of iron and copper. Chalco comes from the Greek word chalko, meaning copper. Chalcopyrite is commonly found in sulphide deposits in most ore-forming environments. A characteristic deep brass yellow colour and iridescent green-to-purple weathering surfaces distinguish chalcopyrite from gold and sulphides such as pyrite.

Pyrite is a common iron sulphide mineral found in many different geological settings. It has a brassy-yellow metallic colour that has caused many people to mistake it for gold, giving it the name “Fool’s gold”. Pyrite and gold can be quite easily distinguished from one another: pyrite is less yellow and much lighter and harder than gold, which can be scratched with a pocket knife. Pyrite often forms perfect cubes, which can grow to quite large sizes, because of its crystal structure. The word pyrite comes from the Greek word ‘pyr’ meaning fire, because it will spark if hit with other metal or stone objects.

Galena is the main ore mineral for lead. Because of its relatively low melting temperature, it can be easily smelted and has been used as a source of lead since ancient times. Galena has a cubic crystal system and can often be found as cubes or octahedra. Its shiny grey metallic lustre and heavy, dense nature make it easy to recognize. Galena often contains small amounts of silver, which add to its economic value.

Specimen Data


The information listed below relates to the current holding location or collection that the sample is from, and whether the item is viewable at that location or is part of a private collection. Coordinates are given as guides, and we remind you that collecting specimens from these locations is not allowed. Caution is advised visiting such sites and Below BC assumes no responsibility for any injuries or trespassing charges that may occur as a result of the viewer entering these sites.

Collection Details

Original Collection:

Ministry of Energy, Mines & Petroleum Resources of Cranbrook (MEM)

Sub Collection:


Collection ID:


Virtual Museum ID:



Date Added to VM:


Location Information

Sample Origin:

Mount McKinnon, BC

Specific Site:

Teddy Glacier Claim

UTM Easting:


UTM Northing:



11 (NAD 83)

Coordinate Accuracy:

Specimen Details

VM Category:


Primary Features:

Quartz chalcopyrite pyrite and galena

Primary Mineral Formula:

SiO2 · CuFeS 2 · FeS 2 · PbS

Primary Category:

oxide sulphide

Secondary Features:

Advanced Geological Information


The following section provides geological data relating to the specimen or the site it was collected from, when available. Information has been obtained from various sources including private and government datasets but may not be up to date. Any geological time periods or ages listed often relate to the primary geology of the area, and may not be the actual date of an event such as mineral formation.

Geological Formation:

Lardeau Group (Jowett and Index Formations)

Geological Period:

Lower Cambrian and younger

Stratigraphic Age:

510 to 541 Million Years

Geological Belt:


Geological Terrane:


Minfile ID:


Site Details:

The Teddy Glacier property is located at 2200 metres elevation on Mount McKinnon, at the head of a tributary of Stephany Creek, 16 kilometres north of Beaton. Access is 30 kilometres by road from Beaton via the main Incomappleux River and Sable Creek roads.

Lower Cambrian and younger Lardeau Group metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks form a northwest-trending broad belt northeast of the Kuskanax batholith. This belt, in part, straddles the northern end of the Kootenay Arc.

The Teddy Glacier occurrence is predominantly underlain by complexly folded and sheared limy and carbonaceous phyllites, grits and limestone of the Lardeau Group (Jowett and Index Formations). Regional structures trend northwest, with a northwest-trending section of the Finkle Synform axis crossing the northeast corner of the area. There are, however, a number of lineations and fold axes mapped with an easterly vergence. The general strike of the phyllites are 315 degrees with steep dips to the northeast.

The most important mineralization at Teddy Glacier is found in quartz veins in two fracture zones that cut obliquely across limy and carbonaceous phyllites. Several greenstone dykes, generally narrow in width, are observed near the veins. The East vein is in the more easterly fracture and strikes approximately 350 degrees. The widths of the vein vary from a few centimetres to 1.2 metres. The West vein, to the west of the East vein, strikes 343 degrees and is similarly mineralized. The East and West veins merge in the southeast to form the 'Big Showing'. This showing comprises a large body of quartz, roughly 9 metres long, carrying bodies of coarse sulphides up to 1.5 metres wide. Assay results across 4.9 metres at the widest point on the vein yielded 8.9 grams per tonne gold, 280 grams per tonne silver, 12.9 per cent lead and 7.1 per cent zinc (Richmond, 1949). The Dunbar vein is 90 to 300 metres to the northwest and is in the same structure that hosts the West vein. Assay results on the Dunbar vein across 0.7 metres returned 6.9 grams per tonne gold, 840 grams per tonne silver, 34.0 per cent lead and 2.8 per cent zinc (Richmond, 1949).

There are numerous other quartz veins on the property which strike in various directions, but most frequently at right angles to the strike of the stratigraphy. Many of these veins connect with the main veins (East and West) and pinch out a short distance away from them. Mineralization in these veins is quite irregular, but they are locally well mineralized near their junctions with the main veins.

The sulphides occur as masses and bunches of almost clean (70-80 per cent) galena, pyrite, sphalerite and minor chalcopyrite in quartz gangue and, less frequently, as intimately intermixed fine-grained sulphides in narrow lenses in quartz. Tetrahedrite occurs as small inclusions in the galena. In most of the ore, silver is closely associated with galena and gold with pyrite (approximately 29 grams of gold per tonne of pyrite). The wallrocks on both the foot and hanging wall sides of the orebodies are hard, competent limy-quartzitic, sedimentary rocks that have been silicified, fractured and faulted during folding and, to a minor extent, after sulphide mineralization.

Probable and inferred reserves at Teddy Glacier are 44 216 tonnes grading 161.1 grams per tonne silver, 4.4 grams per tonne gold, 7.9 per cent lead and 6.8 per cent zinc (Sunshine Lardeau Mining Ltd. 1964 Annual Report).

The property was staked in 1924 by G. Ritchie and G. Edge. High grade float strewn for 300 metres downslope led these prospectors to the mineral occurrences at the foot of the receding 'Teddy' glacier.

Teddy Glacier Mines, Ltd. was incorporated in 1924 by F.R. Blockberger and Associates to acquire the important Rambler-Cariboo, Blackhead, Margaret and Mary Jane claims. A trail was opened to the property in 1925, and in late 1926 a crosscut adit was begun just below the main showing. The adit was advanced to the vein during 1927 and then work stopped. In 1929, the Bush and McCulloch interests provided funds for extending the crosscut to a second vein. A shipment of 5 tonnes of ore was made at this time, yielding 2302 grams of silver, 124 grams of gold, 855 kilograms of lead and 1351 kilograms of zinc.

No further activity was reported until a syndicate, financed by Mines Selection Trust of London, began extensive development work in 1934. A considerable amount of money was spend on equipment, trails and camp buildings. Also at this time, approximately 500 metres of drifting and crosscutting was done in the upper adit. In 1935, a lower adit, begun 55 metres below the upper adit, was driven 18 metres then abandoned because the upper level results were not encouraging.

The claims were allowed to lapse in 1942. The central claims of the group, covering the main showings, were then restaked in 1942 by A.D. Oakley, who subsequently sold controlling interest to A.M. Richmond, representing American Lead-Silver Mines Ltd. Richmond did a detailed re-evaluation of the property. The property was optioned to Columbia Metals Corporation Ltd. in 1952. However, no activity other than road building was reported and the option was abandoned.

In 1959 the property was acquired under joint ownership by Sunshine Lardeau Mines Ltd., Maralgo Mines Ltd. and Magnum Consolidated Mining Co. Ltd.; an indirect interest was secured by Transcontinental Resources Ltd. Work by this consortium during 1963 included geological mapping, sampling of the underground workings and 150 metres of diamond drilling in six holes. Road construction in 1964 disclosed new showings on the Bell No. 14 claim, located 900 metres southeast of the main workings. However, a drill program, totaling 660 metres, was somewhat discouraging and did not establish the continuity of the ore zones.

In 1981, Sunshine Columbia Resources Ltd. completed two diamond drillholes at Teddy Glacier.

In 1987, the property was held by K-2 Resources Inc. (formerly Sunshine Columbia Resources Ltd.) who completed an airborne geophysical survey.

From 1994 to 1994, K-2 Resources Inc. completed bulk sampling, trenching and diamond drilling.

In 2006, Jazz Resources Inc. (descendant of K-2 Resources Inc.) completed a program of prospecting, bulk sampling and road rehabilitation.

In 2013, Jazz Resources Inc. was issued a permit for a pilot mill and tailings pond at the former Spider mine (MINFILE 082KNW045) mill site to process bulk samples of mineralization from the Teddy Glacier property.

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